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Monday, November 27, 2006

Brand Idea Failures: Corfam

The leather substitute

In the mid-1960s, chemical giant DuPont invested millions in the promotion of Corfam, a synthetic substitute for leather. But although Corfam was launched in 1963, it had been conceived many years before. Indeed, in the late 1930s researchers at DuPont had discovered ways to make leather-like materials and had experimented with various possible uses. One of the most obvious uses was for footwear. Demographic trends were starting to indicate that the global population was increasing at such a rate that there would soon be a demand for footwear from non-animal sources.

DuPont therefore believed the world would greet the arrival of their hardwearing, shine-preserving, water-repelling leather look-a-like. And indeed, when the product made its first public appearance at the Chicago Shoe Show in the autumn of 1963, it was greeted enthusiastically.

All DuPont had to do now was to find out where exactly Corfam’s place in the footwear market would be. The company had predicted that by 1984, a quarter of US shoes would be made from Corfam, but to do that it would first need to carve a niche for itself. In the United States of 1963, the footwear market could be divided into the following percentages:

  • 47 per cent Women’s shoes
  • 20 per cent Children’s shoes
  • 18 per cent Men’s shoes
  • 15 per cent Athletic footwear/Other

Clearly if Corfam was to become as big as it could be, it would need to be used by manufacturers of women’s shoes. It soon became clear, however, that the female shoe market was itself divided – between comfy, everyday shoes and ‘fashion’ shoes made for special occasions.

For all Corfam’s strengths, it was not as flexible or ‘skin-like’ as ordinary leather, and therefore was not suited for those shoes designed for comfort or everyday use. So fashion shoes seemed to be the solution. And yet, even here there was a problem. A synthetic material called polyvinyl chloride (now known to us as PVC) was fast becoming popular owing to its extreme low cost.

Vinyl shoes, which could be coloured or embossed very easily, were perfect for women looking for a ‘throwaway’ pair which may be worn once or twice at special occasions before being discarded.

Furthermore, the leather industry was keen to dampen the appeal of Corfam by lowering its prices and improving quality. This factor, combined with the growing popularity of vinyl shoes, led to DuPont’s announcement in March 1971 that they were to withdraw Corfam. On 11 April 1971, the New York Times referred to Corfam as ‘Du Pont’s $100 million Edsel.’

Lessons from Corfam

  • Improve on the original. For a substitute product to work it needs to be better than the original in the minds of consumers. Although Corfam was long-lasting, it lacked the flexibility and ‘breathability’ of leather. It also proved too expensive.
  • Remember that there’s no such thing as a certain success. Corfam was, without doubt, one of the most thoroughly researched and developed products of all time. As such, DuPont felt that its prediction that by 1984, 25 per cent of US shoes would be made of Corfam, was a justifiable one. And yet, Corfam wasn’t even around to see 1984, having failed after just seven years.
  • Compete on quality or value. When a product is unable to be the best in terms of either quality or value it faces an uphill struggle to convince consumers of its merits.

33 comments:

Unknown said...

Those fascinated with the Corfam story will be interested in my book, Faux Real: Genuine Leather and 200 Years of Inspired Fakes, by Robert Kanigel, from University of Pennsylvania Press. Much of the book is devoted to Corfam. See my website at robertkanigel.com for more. Thanks.

Unknown said...

I came to this article after a search for CORFAM, which was mentioned on the bottom of my 40 year old tin of Kiwi shoe polish. It says, "Also superb for CORFAM."

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Jhon Staphen said...

Great blog Those fascinated with the Corfam story will be interested in my book, Faux Real: Genuine Leather and 200 Years of Inspired Fakes, by Robert Kanigel, from University of Pennsylvania Press. Much of the book is devoted to Corfam. See my website at robertkanigel.com for more. Thanks........

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Emma said...

Hello,

Does anyone know who owns the rights to the Corfam brand now? I see that it was sold to a company in Poland, but I can find no further trace.

Many thanks

Unknown said...

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Edie Jams said...

Those fascinated with the Corfam story will be interested in my book, Faux Real: Genuine Leather and 200 Years of Inspired Fakes, by Robert Kanigel, from University of Pennsylvania Press. Much of the book is devoted to Corfam. See my website at robertkanigel.com for more. Thanks.......

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Unknown said...

The real reason for the failure of Dupont's prediction was the rise of factory farms which burst on the scene in the 1960's as result of the confluence of the invention/discovery of chemical fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides which increased cereal crop yields dramatically resulting in heavy losses by farmers who decided to feed the excess cereal yield to other animals on feedlots and cages made possible by the discovery of antibiotics in the 1940's. Other animals now outcompete humans for cereals. In the USA 30% of pigs were kept on factory farms by 1992 rising to over 97% by 2017. Shame leather added marginal profit to these concentrated animal rearings.

Martha said...

My husband's father Francis Farrell was one of the research chemists working For du Pont and received a patent for corfam. It was it was later sold to a Polish firm. Our family still has the patent certificate .

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Hadwen said...

I bought Corfam shoes for years and found them to be comfortable, hard-wearing and waterproof yet breathable. I was dumbfounded when Corfam was suddenly unavailable. I don't believe the argument that decreasing demand was the reason for its demise. I believe it was more to do with the meat / leather industry's money and power crushing a substitute product that would allow people to avoid killing animals for their shoes.

There is an increasing number of people becoming vegetarian and vegan, and having to find non-leather shoes is not easy. Much of the faux leather is not breathable or as hard-wearing as leather, and good quality faux leather is expensive.

Someone mentioned factory farms reducing costs for the meat / leather industry. Factory farms also add even more horror to the cruelty of the meat industry. If we claim to be civilised, let alone humane, we should have empathy for our fellow sentient beings, instead of lacking empathy as psychopaths do.

electric joe said...

i agree! i loved my Corfam gogo boots they lasted forever and to this day the most comfortable shoe i have ever worn they are sorely missed

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